Current Affairs

Democracy in Argentina

2015 is a year of elections. The Argentines vote to choose the destiny of our country and of other forty million people.

These elections are the expression of a democratic system, the election of the governors by the governed, as it happens with many other countries in the occidental world and some other countries outside of it.


What is considered as democracy?


Is the term that gave its origin equally applicable to the system we know today?


We can start by saying that partly it is not. The Greek democracy, or the government of the people, did not correspond to the current definition of popular government. For example, in ancient Hellas not every inhabitant were considered citizens (with political rights) and most of the population was slave. On the other hand, those who had political rights should assume them as their duty in the agora or in the political arena.


Today, according to the theory of the American political scientist Robert Dahl, we  must say that what we call democracy represents an open, inclusive and competitive political system. This system is based on citizen participation and the control of the citizens over the government.

But, beyond the dogmas and without wanting to hurt susceptibilities, we will analyze if the current Argentine system correspond completely or partially to a modern democracy.


How democratic is Argentina today?




  • Free, periodic and competitive elections.


We can’t doubt that at a national level we live in a country where, since the return to democracy, a system exists in which the officers are elected by vote in clean elections that are carried out regularly and in which coaction is rare and alternatives from the current government can compete freely. It is a different story at a province level in which periodicity is not affected, but competitiveness is partially affected.



  • Inclusive vote.


Practically every adult can periodically participate in the elections. There are no privileges or qualified votes, nor the exclusion of certain groups or sectors.



  • Right to hold public office.


In theory, any Argentine citizen can run for office representing a political party. In practice, it is not as easy for an “outsider” of the traditional political circle to access it, but it is not restricted by any anti-competitive requisite.



  • Freedom of speech.


It may be one of the most controversial characteristics of the Argentina of today.

The citizens have the right to express themselves, without putting themselves in danger of receiving severe punishments, about political issues included criticizing public officers, the government, the regime, the socio-economic system or the prevalent ideology, among others.

There is no doubt that in Argentina we currently live fully the “freedom of speech”. However, this doesn’t omit the attacks from the party currently in government to certain media and journalists, creating and adverse environment but without affecting the democratic principle.

We must take into account that every media responds to particular interests that can crush with those of the government of the time. The serious thing would be that for the communication channel to be silenced. In Argentina, apart from the adverse environment and certain critics there is no evidence of the violation of this principle. In case of any violation by the media, it is the responsibility of justice and not of the government to judge it.



  • Variety of information sources


Citizens have the right to use different sources of information which do not only exist but are also protected by law.

Even though it’s true that the new media law encourages this variety of sources, it doesn’t differentiate between those close to the government or not. Anyway, we must say that in Argentina there is currently a broad variety of sources of information.



  • Associative autonomy


The citizens, to ensure the defense of their rights and interests, can build organizations and associations relatively independent, including political parties and interest groups.


Thus, we can say that in Argentina we currently live in a full democratic system. However, this doesn’t mean that certain characteristics, as freedom of speech, are more likely to be damaged than other. But nobody can doubt that from a formal point of view we live as a country under a full democratic system.

Maybe going deeper of the formal content of democracy, we may ask ourselves what have we accomplished as a society and how much is missing.

There is no doubt that to leave in a full and healthy democracy we must heal the social debt. That one that leaves millions of Argentines out of the system and makes us vulnerable regarding the democratic quality and its future.

It’s us, the citizens, the responsibles for strengthening democracy and for including everybody and assuring its benefits for the whole population.

Let’s celebrate democracy, but we know it is not enough. The challenge is the inclusion.

South America, that phenomenon

A common origin, several attempts to constitute, a reality that repeats itself, amidst dichotomies, along the Andes and the marine line. In Latin America, and even more in the South region, the historical and political root is one. The Hispanic colonization, with the subsequent plundering and resources extraction, and the configuration of a power scheme that was kept after the independence and the emancipation, at least political, that the continent went through in the19th century, is a common factor of undoubtable weight in the explanation of the current scenario. On the other hand, the dependence remained in the economical and productive aspect, while the social inequality was accentuated. Today, our continent wants to be a global main player and strives to raise as the actor that could be and wants to be. However, in the 19th century, the prospect was another.

The political genesis

The flame ignited by the French and the Americans lit the enlightened elites of the continent. Under the pretext of maintaining the autonomy while the Napoleonic Empire took over the European crowns, Latin America rose and fought for independence. Continue reading…

Violence and terrorist acts: what do we do now?

Everybody is talking about the terrorist attack that happened a few days ago in Charlie Hebdo. Whether it is to condemn violence, to condemn Muslims, to defend the non-radical Muslims, to defend freedom of speech, and/or to comment the magazine’s work. Many theories have been developed: that Muslims want to end the Western world, that the radicals were offended by the satirical portraits of Prophet Muhammad, that the radical terrorists were seeking, through the attack, to generate Islamophobia to gain more followers, etc etc etc.

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How neutral should the Internet be?

Allow me to introduce you first to how the internet works under the hood. Your local ISP (Internet Service Provider, like Comcast or Verizon) is just the last provider in a chain of entities that provide the infrastructure for internet. They usually buy their bandwidth and connections to other providers from a larger company (a ISP for ISPs). They are categorized in multiple layers, usually referred to as tier 3, tier 2, and tier 1 providers (roughly “local”, “regional”, and “global” respectively).


Bandwidth is not as cheap as one may think. You pay for outgoing traffic from your network to another provider, usually one that sits one tier up. The more intermediaries the data has to go through, the more expensive it gets. I estimate that sending data to another computer in the same city is around 100 times cheaper than sending it across the globe, say, from South America to Asia, as that package will be passed around through a set of providers located in Europe or the US first.

It’s quite a complicated process (but it’s fully automated), and you could make an analogy with the international phone operators in the 1950s or 1960s, only that this time computers are the ones switching the lines around. A single company has no control over how the data will be routed. Your Tier-3 ISP doesn’t mind whether the tier 2 ISP will route your package from New York City to India: and it’s probably up to the Tier-1 provider to decide whether to go through Europe and Turkey or through California and China…

Netflix needs a lot of bandwidth. It has a cost effective strategy: placing servers close to your place to get better deals for bandwidth from the same local ISP that you have. This allows Netflix to provide a better service to you (being in the same region is not only cheaper, but faster, which means less waiting time before  stream your movie) and it is also more convenient for your ISP (they save costs in outgoing connections to their Tier-2 provider and instead relay traffic inside their own network).

Net Neutrality

So, what is net neutrality?

Stephanie Creets, blogger at SingleHop, has summed-up the essentials to understanding this controversial issue in a balanced way. This subject is related to what happens when the network is congested. The owner of an ISP gets to choose how to prioritize traffic when the network is overwhelmed. For example, in your company’s network, the network administrator probably decided to give priority to applications like Skype, in order to avoid having those horrible delays in the conversation that we all hate. ISPs come up with similar solutions.

The owner of a network decided then to differentiate between different kinds of packages. It’s analog to enabling a fast lane in a highway: prioritizing one kind of vehicles over others. This means, not all “packets”, not every activity that you need internet for, are equal.

Comcast is not only a Tier-3 provider. They are also a Tier-2 provider. They are the owners of their infrastructure, and they’ve cut a deal to give priority to Netflix connections in case there is a network congestion problem. This sounds good; since it will allow you to see your movies in great quality at 7 PM, the peak hour for network traffic. The bad thing is, giving priority to some kind of traffic means that another type of traffic will be slowed down (like, for example, your Skype calls). Enabling a fast lane means that there’s one less lane for the cars that don’t go into the fast lane.

So it’s as simple as that: differentiating amongst traffic, by enabling fast lanes, goes against “net neutrality”. Is that a good thing? That’s arguable. If you’re a Netflix user, it’s good because you’ll be able to stream your movies faster. If you’re trying to do something else, maybe it’s not so great.

What do you believe? Should law-makers demand a neutral, more equitative, behaviour from ISPs?

International Collaboration Day

Today, Tuesday 16th of January, we celebrate in more than 40 cities and 4 continents the International Collaboration Day, created to highlight the coworking spaces.

Recent decades have brought continued growth in areas associated with collective action. Just 20 years ago, collaboration was in a secondary scene, however, nowadays it has made it’s way into all strata of our society, move to the center of the global scene and transform the strategic priorities of all organizations.

16 de enero - Día Internacional de la Colaboración - No faltes!

Continue reading…

How to make the most of the SABF experience

This time last year, I was preparing for my trip to the South American Business Forum. As a student, I have been to many international and local conferences, and I can honestly say SABF was the best conference I have attended. This was mostly due to the amazing organising team, their dedication to excellence, and the quality of the delegates. However, the quality of a conference experience also depends on the delegate’s preparation and attitude. Here are some tips on how to make the most out of the SABF experience:

Before the conference:

  • Be prepared. You don’t have to do heavy research on all the topics that could be covered during the conference, but you should try and read on topics that you are most interested in. This means that you can contribute more during the sessions, and you may already get an idea of questions to ask speakers.

  • Have goals. Think about the top three things you want to get out of the conference. It could be anything from sharing your experiences with others, to learning about a particular topic or organisation, or talking to a particular speaker.

During the conference:

  • Add value.  If you are selected for SABF, it means the organisers can see your potential to contribute to the conference. You were probably selected because of your leadership experience, entrepreneurial mindset or other extra-curricular activities. So be prepared to share your unique experiences. Also, be prepared to share your culture- most likely, you will be one of few (if not the only) delegate from your country. Most of the valuable and memorable conversations I had were with delegates who I exchanged ideas and knowledge with.

  • Speak up. There will be many opportunities to ask questions and share your opinions, so make sure you take them. Speaking in front of 100 people can be daunting, but remember that they are 100 friendly, curious and open-minded people.

  • Be curious. You will meet people from all over the world and from different walks of life. There are some incredible students selected to be part of SABF, so try and get to know people and their stories. During my conference, I met a variety of people- from students who already founded their own start-ups, to leaders of student organisations, to students involved in NGOs.

  • Be open-minded. Ultimately, any experience is only as good as your attitude. You might encounter cultural differences, or opinions that are vastly different to yours. There may be things that don’t go smoothly, or as planned. When those things happen, take a step back and look at the bigger picture. What could you learn from the experience?

  • Take notes. The conference is only 3 days, but it is intense. I had so many epiphanies and new ideas come to me during the conference. Even now, a year on, I still refer to my notes and find that my understanding of a particular issue is constantly evolving.

  • Savour it. SABF is full of dynamic people, thought-provoking sessions and learning opportunities. Buenos Aires is a beautiful city with many attractions. Argentina is very rich in history and culture. Make the most out of everything! The same experience won’t be replicated again.

After the conference:

  • Stay connected. There won’t be many opportunities in life where you will meet so many different people from so many different backgrounds, all in the same place. Stay in touch with your newfound friends. The conversations that you started during conference can be (and should be) continued afterwards.

  • Remember the lessons. Take some time afterwards to reflect on what you have learnt, and how you can move forward with the knowledge.

  • Share the experience. Be open and proactive sharing your experiences- whether it’s through a speech, writing a blog, or spreading the word about SABF in your university.

To all those that have been selected for next year, I wish you the very best!

How SABF changed my life

When I made up my mind to write this article; at first, I thought of writing especifically about one of the talks that was given in last year´s SABF, and how this talk made me think again a lot of aspects regarding the direction my career was heading to.
But then, I realized that this single talk, as enlightening as it had been for me, not quite caught the great change in the way I now think my future and my career, that the SABF as a whole, made me experience.
At this point in my professional education I have no doubt, and who knows me, knows it: the SABF was the beginning of a new life and the source of new motivatión and enthusiasm for my studies. In this brief post, I will try to express why this conference has the potential of being a life changing experience and how it changed mine.

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13 Lessons learnt from World Business Dialogue ’13

  1. Family in Business. The most successful companies, and the most prone to survive crises are family owned. Treating the company as a part of your identity sparkles innovation and creativity; marvelous example is the Ferrero company ( where the founder Michele Ferrero designs almost all products. Moreover, when a company is hit by exogenous factors and economic hardships, the family as a whole acts as a catalyst in the survival of the firm due to the personal connection the members have established with its existence.

    Continue reading…

SABF in Germany

During March 13th and 14th, Celeste Molina and I, Luciana Reznik, attended the 16th Edition of the World Business Dialogue, an international business conference organized by students of the University of Cologne (Cologne, Germany), and we wanted to share our experience with the SABF community.

The World Business Dialogue gathers 50 prominent leaders with 300 students from the entire world to boost international cooperation among the students, by means of debates, ideas and workshops.

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Corruption in disguise

CPI does not only stand for consumer price index as most economists know. Transparency International, the global coalition against corruption, has broken the conventional acronym’s significance with its Corruption Perspective Index (also, CPI). Transparency International (TI) has started as an independent organization in the early 1990’s and gained its credibility over the years. TI aims to emphasize transparency, integrity, democracy, accountability, and similar values, among the world’s different private and public sectors. The organization has a rich archive of reports, indexes, and articles about corruption and corresponding solutions. It also lobbies for transparency in the international context. Transparency International broke the early 90’s taboo by tackling corruption directly, and by turning corruption into a measurable variable.

Continue reading…